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INTRODUCTION

Mold and fungi secretly accompany us throughout the history of mankind, and it appeared much earlier than the man himself.

Despite a lot of research, the active development of microbiology, statistics rich experience mold is one of the mysteries of our world, is not fully understood and there every once in a new way.

Ask yourself a simple, at first glance, the question, if you have any mold, do you know:

  • where to go for help or advice
  • how to deal with mold?
  • how to protect your home, your family and yourself from the mold?
  • means by which to use?

People who can answer these questions can be counted on one hand. Why?

Relatively new to the mold were treated as a serious issue. We are used to the smell of mold, going into the entrance of the old house to paint her favorite fringe dining. Our bathroom with black fungus does not shock us, and herbs in the garden basement does not prevent us to store there vegetable stock. We were not too lazy to deal with mold. We just do not know why or how. It is true then we wonder why we have allergies, why we breathe heavily, why perfectly built house is rotting, and repairs must be done every year. We bill all on biomagnetic fields on low-quality materials, on anything, not paying attention to the root cause.

Lighting control problems and protect from mold people, building and finishing materials are highly specialized in media, so that there is a real "hunger for information" on this range of issues. For the same reason, the vast majority still believes mold free ornament, nuisance, annoying "pet" and not a serious problem.

For too long we have assumed that the mold is harmless to the human ...

Urban residents spend in their homes 50-70% of the time, but only in enclosed spaces, including workplaces up to 80-90% of the time. During this time, through the respiratory tract being filtered indoor air, and if it contains a large number of microorganisms, they are deposited on the lungs (and the cells are able to mold to penetrate deeply into the lung tissue), causing a variety of disease states. Such states are called in the foreign literature the term "Sick building syndrome" ("Pathogenic effects indoors" or "Syndrome Patient Premises").

Some fungi can cause diathesis in children, allergies, asthma, and rolling in even cancer.

Growth of mold is not always accompanied by a visible growth, but in any case, the affected material is a source of mold spores, so the first sign of mold contamination is the appearance of its spores in the air. As radiation or heavy metals act invisibly on the body, and the mold affects the rights, health and housing.

Most poisonous mold is yellow, which produces the strongest aflatoxin. Yellow mold affects food (most exposed shock liver, fish, milk, rice, peanuts).

Opening a jar of strawberry jam grandma, we often see a small layer on top of the mold. My head immediately pops up something about penicillin, and something else, not less useful. In fact, this "harmless" mold - a real poison, which can accumulate in the body and lead to liver cancer.

Mold, which is used in the preparation of elite varieties of cheese and wine specially prepared. Mold affects food has nothing to do with it. More than 100 toxic compounds found by scientists in the mold and products covered by it, may for a long time does not manifest itself in the body. But after a few decades they can cause rapid growth of cancerous tumors. Alas, the heat treatment is in any way on these toxins are not affected. So moldy foods (whether jam, bread, vegetables, fruit or nuts) should immediately throw away.

Faced with mold in the house, you are full of optimism and self-confidence. Confidence in a quick and easy victory over the mold is at once. The result is a fresh renovation, made ​​even the highest-quality interior materials, to become zero just six months. You are going to have a number of issues outlined above, and understand that just do not know the answer to any of them. We will try to fix it and to present information available to us in the following sections:

What is mold?

Mold (mold) - a special realm of nature.

Members of this kingdom are the similarities and differences as bacteria, plants, and animals. As well as plants, fungi absorb nutrients across its surface, and not swallow, like animals. However, in contrast to plants fungi can not use solar energy to feed carbon dioxide from the air and synthesize organic molecules of the substance of the carbon dioxide, but is also used as the animals ready organic matter in the form of a variety of plant and animal remains. Like bacteria fungi have a cellular structure. However, if the bacterial cells we find the kernel, fungal cell may have one or more cores. Fungi are inherent characteristics of plants - immobility, apical growth, the presence of cell walls, etc., as well as signs of the animals - the type of exchange , the presence of chitin, the formation of urea, etc.In contrast to plants that produce organic matter from carbon dioxide and mineral substances, mold together bacteria and some just destroys it, providing that the atmosphere of carbon dioxide, volatile substances, essential oils and minerals.

Molds belong to the class Oomycetes, marsupials and imperfect fungi.

Mold - mold folksy name, which, in turn, is mold (grows on stone, concrete, paint), blue fungus (grows in the tissue of the tree), rot fungus (bacterial, white, brown rot, growing on wood), yeast (for food). Molds are common almost everywhere. They are found, as in the man's house, and in the environment.

Mold and its spores, along with other micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria) are found in the air of any room, separately, in the form of small particles (mold spores usually 2 - 8 microns, bacteria usually 0.5 - 1.5 mm), and in the form of aggregates of different sizes as well as in the form of micro-inclusions in the other dust particles. And on the street, and in the room there are seasonal changes in the number of spores or other particles of mold. Some fungi form spores year round, such as Penicillium, other parasites on plants - in the spring, summer and fall - Cladosporium, Alternaria.

WHAT IT DO?

Blue, greening surfaces, peeling walls, Mahra and growing "beard", black spots on the ceiling indicate the presence of mold. Sometimes mold is of the form of films, crusts, loose or powdery deposits on spoiled food, rotten leaves, on rotten wood.

Mold colonies have different colors, such as in Alternaria and Aspergillus - black or brown, with Penicillium - blue or green. Mold can be gray, yellow, and red.

In the Caucasus, a well-known cave in the conglomerates - Fanagoriyskaya (1470 m long). It was discovered fluorescent mold. Moreover, fluorescence was so strong that at a distance of 0.5 m can be distinguished features.

Observe fungal damage of wood is simple: dark spots, gray patina, raw wood. The characteristic features of the fungus are hogging the tree and its shrinkage.

As for the color of rot, it is red, white, gray, yellow, green.

Red rot affects conifers, white and yellow - oak and birch, green - oak barrels, beams and floor cellar.

Dry rot on the tree is gray and fuzzy forms, similar weight wool, sometimes the fungus resembles flat gray sheets with lots of lemon and lilac. On leaf surfaces are often observed water droplets. Each dispute dry rot of about 0.01 mm (requires about 20 billion of these structures to cover an area of one square meter). The wound, the tree is covered with brown and cracks located along and across the grain.

Wet rot like a rope or thin streaks of dark color. In some places (such as baseboards) it looks like a grayish leaves. In some cases, rot looks like a yellow or dark brown leather. Affected wood darkens, there are cracks.

The condition of the development of mold and

Fungus spreads through the air in the form of microscopic spores. In contact with moist surface it grows finest threads (mycelium).

It is believed that the ideal conditions for the emergence and spread of mold - temperature plus 20 0 C and relative humidity above 95%. Bad air support fungal growth. In addition, mold loves dirt. The dirtier the house, the more bacteria, the more bacteria, the more fungi.

Mold actively propagated at room temperature under conditions of high humidity and insufficient ventilation in many materials and coatings used inside the premises, including concrete, plaster, wood, plastics, rubber, fabric base linoleum, painted surfaces, carpets, books, etc.

Beneficial conditions for the development of mold are formed in the flower pots. Microspores (size of mold spores - from 2 to 8 microns) may be raised for ventilation of damp basements.

Mold is strongest in the autumn, as it is related to the decomposition of vegetation.

About the humidity

Mold and fungus loves moisture. Unfortunately, all of the materials that surround us, to varying degrees, contain moisture. In the facade of stone and concrete moisture is formed by the condensation that is deposited on the surfaces of the walls in the form of small droplets. Condensation can occur in cold weather due to insufficient thickness of the walls. Bathrooms (not to mention the baths and saunas) condensate - a common phenomenon - the result of the temperature difference between the surface and the adjacent air. Rain has beneficial effects on the growth of mold. Moisture can penetrate through the pores, holes, cracks or leaking seams buildings. Ground water and sediment have bad property soak into the base of the building or in the walls. The appearance of mold on the exposed material in this case is inevitable. Constructive moisture initially present in new designs and may accumulate at the stage of building materials, as well as during the actual construction. Moisture accumulation possible due to the unbalanced air space. Another one of the causes of water - leaking from the neighbors above (with the old roof) or old heating systems, water supply and sanitation. The number of fungi affect variations indoor environments. Humidity or water flow from taps provide an environment for the growth of various molds.

The temperature

Mold thrives quite at low temperatures. She, like the trees in winter, "leads an active life" (non-spore forming, although there are exceptions), but does not die. When the temperature again begins to mold sporoobrazovyvat. High temperatures can kill mold, but for the destruction of some species to the effect of temperature plus 1000C for 1-2 hours.

About Timber

Mold - a malicious enemy of wood. Wood dries naturally, for a long time under the threat of decay. She also threatened by fungi and molds.

Fungi and bacteria may enter the timber back in the forest, or in transit. They only need to get in good condition to start to flourish. Imagine a common situation - construction materials purchased in the spring (and therefore a "Winter Forest", which is considered the most healthy), and its use started only in the second half of summer. Storage timber for the period laid down in a pile and covered with polyethylene, wrapped as tightly as possible. It seems to be all right. Just do not take into account one - the greenhouse effect. And this effect - just grace to mold. The same timber would be intact if the stack just something covered with rain from above, but because it would open the walls ventilated.

Similar phenomena may be in the finished buildings. Mold and blue stain fungi, mostly spoil the look, as well as evidence of temporary humidification timber. The real enemies of wood are the mycelium, which destroy the fiber and softening wood, causing significant damage to the supporting structures. Blue mold and do not affect the strength of the wood, the rot is destroying the tree and eventually making it unsuitable for use (infecting neighboring boards and beams). Wooden houses are not dying of old age: the tree is durable enough to serve for centuries, and in suitable conditions persist for millennia. All because a tree fell ill ... Brownie fungus. Blueness easily penetrates ordinary varnishes and paints, which are covered with wood. Blue is the high humidity and temperature plus 10-25 0C.

Contributes to the development of blue and motionless ambient air. Blue itself does not change the mechanical properties of wood, but is a precursor to decay, and its presence indicates a high moisture content.

Bacterial cells destroys wood rot from the inside and cause decomposition of cellulose. Tree because of it gets dark and turn gray. White mold triggers decomposition of cellulose and lignin - an organic polymer compound contained in the cell walls of vascular plants and cause them lignification (hardwood contains 20-30% lignin, softwood - up to 50%).

Brown rot "splits" cellulose, which causes splitting wood. Part of the tree, struck a rotten, turns brown. Wet rot is more common in homes with high moisture, dry rot appears in moist areas, but can then go to the dry wood, brick, plaster. Note that the darkening of the wood is not to say her illness. Any raw board outdoor color changes. This is a kind of natural oxidation.

The appearance of the fungus brownie is easy to see: the wall logs, the floorboards, wall covering first down or a white cotton-like cluster of white threads. Then appear the yellow, pink and purple spots, which over time turned into a film with a silvery gray shimmer. Dark wood, cracks and crumbles. Fungus grows dramatically fast, especially in the buildings of soft wood, pine and oak wood damaged by fungus brownies less.

If house-destroying fungus fails, then for 6 - 8 months, he can "eat through" the wood through. The worst enemy of the tree - white mushroom house. He successfully masquerades as common mold. But it is as long as the fungus does not show character. Under certain conditions, this month it is able to "eat" the whole oak floor 4 inches thick!

Wood - "live" material containing moisture. Growing tree fed water through the roots and trunk. In the lumber and wood products stored structure of the cells of a growing tree, and therefore absorbs the water board, and through the transverse plane is more than longitudinal. Moisture - this is what is necessary fungi.

Besides wood mold can destructively affect virtually any material. It is easy to destroy the coatings, dye brick, cement and concrete (concrete slab fungal attack crumbles just a couple of years).

Any material that does not possess biocidal protection, can be destroyed by mold.

 

 

FACTS history of foreign countries ...

One. "Mold" problem arose in Germany after mass insulation of walls and sealing of windows (so thrifty Germans wanted to save heat). Because of poor ventilation in the premises became accumulate daily from 8 to 15 liters of water (one reason - the cleanliness of the Germans, who often use the bathroom and shower).

2. To protect the wood from mold Alexander the Great special decree ordered the olive oil soak the most important details of wooden bridges (piles) and covering and frames ships.

3. During the construction of Noah's Ark prosmolil it inside and out.

4. In ancient China, wood soaked in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride.

5. Sweden has a standard: a cubic meter of room air should not contain more than 174 colony-forming units of active microcell mold (conducted by Russian microbiologists study yielded the result is 3-6 times higher than that figure.)

6. First fungus Stachybotrys atra, a few years ago which attracted the attention of scientists and associate with the death of several babies in Ohio, sown from the lungs seven year old boy. This mold, one of the hundreds of thousands of naturally occurring fungi , can cause serious health problems if the grow house. Inside the premises, it becomes a dangerous enemy of the human body, especially it hurts babies and children. Fungus Stachybotrys atra (stakibotris atra) emits poisonous spores that are easily inhaled. Outdoors they are relatively rapidly destroyed, but in the wet, poorly ventilated room, on heating pipes or cellulosic mold growing rapidly. The house where the fungus was later discovered, the children were migraines, coughing, watery eyes and constant fatigue that caused them often refer to the pediatrician. The mother became ill hormone-asthma. None of the family members did not test for the fungus, but the Scottish Collie Rocky, who was suffering from vomiting and diarrhea, has been tested. He was discovered by a fungus that dwelleth in the gastro-intestinal tract. Scientists later Case Western Reserve University have found a link between Stachybotrys atra and unusual level of infant mortality from pulmonary hemorrhage. 10 babies who died for this reason, we lived in a bad water damage homes in Cleveland, and all the houses were concentrated in one area. Since then, the United States was 160 such reported cases.

7. Historical Library in Staten Island, New York, was closed after the discovery of the air toxic mold spores spreading from the basement. Were closed bank in Manitoba and several schools in Seattle.

8. A cause of death of persons, we reveal the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs, a yellow mold, distinctive aflatoxin. Aflatoxin causes severe pneumonia and liver cancer.

9. Bantu African nation deliberately keeps the products so that they mold for taste. This more than any nation in the world suffers from liver cancer, they die, and not live to 40.

10. In India, for the development of mold ideal conditions. Here are common liver cirrhosis in children who are fed yellow rice. It's all contaminated by aflatoxin.

11. In old Russia hut infested with white fungus brownies immediately burned, so as not to infect the neighboring buildings.

12. US scientists at Cornell University New York State interested in unexplained cases of accidental disease physicians, nurses, and hospital visitors pulmonary aspergillosis. What causes the disease mold, no doubt. But the first thought that its source - the ventilation system. After a long study still found that it "attacks" on the person of the clothes. Habitat for mold is most suitable cotton fabric.

13. Army of two thousand years of Chinese terracotta warriors - one of the most significant archaeological discoveries of the XX century - threatening mold. Stone army was discovered by accident in 1976 on the field near the ancient Chinese city of Qin peasants. After two years of excavation, archaeologists have found that equestrian statues exactly 7000. It was found that 1,400 of 7,000 articles affected by different types of mold, and urgent action is needed so they are not destroyed.

14. In 1997, American astronaut Michael Foale, stayed in orbit station "Mir", claimed that the smell inside the mushrooms and damp. And the walls in many places covered with multicolored mold. Like, from the fungal spores watery eyes and itchy skin . Only recently, Russian scientists from the Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, confirmed this information. It turns out that our astronauts and ground-based scientists and without Foley knew about mold. Moreover, trying to fight it with a special anti-fungal cream . But without much success. Fungi spoil plastic, metal and even glass - almost gnawed through through a window. According to Alexander Viktorov, chief of sanitary-chemical and microbiological safety, mold has become the most voracious in response to solar activity. Not surprisingly , there is a version in which the mold is the main culprit of most of the problems at the station "Mir". Including on-board computer. Recently, the situation could deteriorate dramatically, and mold has grown so much that further exploitation of the station in the crew mode has been removed. Perhaps it was defeated in a battle with fungi and forced to drown the "World."

15. "I spent a lot of experiments. Now firmly believe: beer, wine and milk spoil invisible creatures - microbes ... they cause disastrous process that leads to spoilage," - said in a society of naturalists September 3, 1857 in While still a little-known French scientist Louis Pasteur (the inventor of pasteurization).

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